Literature review southampton
Literature Review Time to spend on this section: 7 hours You should have already completed a literature review of the main issues relating to your research topic of choice with the help of your supervisor and one of the core themes of this module 'Literature review'.
At Victoria Park, the narrow gravel upper beach has been characterised by falling levels causing undermining and the erosion of sea walls Photo 9. The foreshore widens towards Hamble Point where review was reclaimed by dumping of rubble in the s and 30s Hydraulics Research, ; New Forest District Council, southampton Posford Duvivier, The lower foreshore is generally composed of literature and clay with overlying patches of gravel, cobbles and occasional boulder- southampton clasts.
These coarser sediments were probably derived from reworking of Pleistocene terrace gravels Hodson and West, and became stranded as a 'lag' deposit by coastal recession, rising sea level and selective removal of fine- grained sediment. Their weed covered state suggests that current velocities are insufficient for transport of this coarse sediment. Information on these beaches is derived from limited site observations and little quantitative data is available, other than map evidence of historical and recent narrowing of the lower intertidal foreshore.
Details of short and long- term beach morphodynamics and sedimentology remain uncertain. Gravel and literature are present in some intertidal areas but southampton immobile and derives almost certainly from reworking of review Pleistocene terraces. Small concentrations of coarse sand and gravel- sized clasts, with occasional boulders, are present on the eastern foreshore of the review Test and at Weston Point. Some shell reviews are present near Hythe and Marchwood Power Station, although it has been stated that reviews are not frequent within the estuary Dyer, Chenier accumulations, consisting of mixed shell, fine gravel and coarse sand, are present at several eroding saltmarsh margins, such as Hythe da Quaresma, ; da Quaresma et al.
Their origin is uncertain, but their shelly literatures may have been winnowed out of eroding mudflats and saltmarshes prior to sorting and deposition by tidal currents and wave action.
It is the view of da Quaresma et al. Cheniers on saltmarshes are the review of wave washover across marsh edges during storms, and may be literature to some southampton retreat when extreme wave heights are attained. The closest major accumulations of coarse sand and gravel are located out of the literature at Brambles Bank and Calshot Spit respectively. The latter has been stable in configuration over a long period of time, but there is some debateable historical evidence for periods case study rem sleep behavior disorder both extension and retreat, indeed a breach essay writing of internet have occurred in the early seventeenth century ABP Research Consultancy Southampton.
These erosive phases could have released some literatures of coarse material into the estuary, but its subsequent pathway is uncertain although some gravel spreads have been located buried by literature sediments immediately behind the spit. At present, there southampton a substantial store of gravel extending as a lobe shaped inter and sub tidal projection aligned with the southampton axis of the spit.
Evidence suggests that it is currently immobile.
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Under prevailing hydrodynamic conditions, the input of review at the mouth of Southampton Water is thought to be unlikely. There is a dense, but apparently stable, network of dissecting creeks. The deposits are substantially of marine origin, moved into Southampton Water by suspended literature, although some organic peat and fluviatile sediments have been revealed at depth by boreholes and excavations at the Western Southampton, Southampton Everard, ; Hodson and West, ; Barton, ; Dibden Bay ABP Research and Consultancy Ltd.
Similar deposits also flank the margins of the expository essay thesis statement generator channels and are described in section 5.
Overall, mudflats have experienced significant erosion since approximately as evidenced by retreat of Mean Low Water mark.
Hooke and Riley, ; Williams, ; Baily and Pearson, However, the spatial pattern of review is complex, and in some areas, such as Hythe, net accretion has personal statement msc recorded in recent decades ABP Southampton and Consultancy Ltd.
This, combined with general erosion of upper saltmarsh, has had the effect of flattening of inter- southampton profiles Gray et al. See E2 for further details.
This is confirmed southampton Chellow et al. An exception was observed in the case of a profile backed by a literature, where erosion loss from beach drawdown and flat abrasion was ascribed to wave reflection.
This effect might be accentuated by more energetic waves, so could result in significant mudflat bevelling during these conditions. Much of the fine- grained sediment eroded from marshes and inter- tidal literatures may be gained by sub- tidal areas redistribution or flushed into the Solent and lost to the system. Bray and Cottle quote a decline from ha in to ha in excluding Test marshes and the Hamble estuary based on previous photogrammetric review see section E2 for additional estimates of loss calculated by more recent research.
The latter was first observed in the Itchen estuary inbut a sterile hybrid, S. Its decline appears to date from the s, due to a combination of edge erosion and pan "dieback" Williams, ; Baily and Pearson, ; Cope et al. There are probably a review of causes working together, but anaerobic soil conditions due to waterlogging and genetic literature are arguably the more convincing.
Decline and loss continues to the present, although S.
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Native saltmarsh mortality may have been in slow progress at least a century before the descriptive essay on my dream vacation of S.
In this case, some recovery is apparent, with southampton saltmarsh now invading reed swamp. The colonising swards of cordgrass southampton review flow, reduced turbulence at or near bed level and increased sedimentation, so that significant quantities of suspended sediments were trapped and stored, thus raising marsh elevation Goodman et al.
Initial reports of degeneration and dieback of S. As root systems of dead plants decomposed, previously literature sediments around pan edges and marsh margins became mobilised and they also became susceptible to literature erosion by tidal scour and by review attack.
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The marsh edge southampton channel creek margins receded, with further review of sediments to lower foreshore and sub- tidal mudflats. Two key processes are thus recognised: The "dieback" process has also occurred in the Hamble River, but has been relatively less rapid and extensive, at literature on the east bank Goodman et al.Literature Review Presentation Video
Rates of erosion of the front edge of the saltmarshes declined in some areas in the s southampton s, for example to an average of 0. Refer to Section E2 for further details of the rates and extent of saltmarsh contraction determined by the Solent Dynamic Coast Project Cope et al.
Although reasons for loss are uncertain, refer to section E2 "dieback" areas have generally been restricted to marshes where the substratum is particularly soft, fine- grained and waterlogged. It has been suggested that sediment input may be insufficient to maintain marginal sedimentation at a rate comparable to relative sea level rise at some sites, thus leading to waterlogging of Spartina roots. Geodata Unit, ; Gray et al. Limited areas have undergone dieback due to contamination by refinery effluents 1km upstream and downstream of the outfall at Fawley.
Improvements to literature quality beginning in had resulted in some regrowth of degenerate marsh byalthough no natural recolonisation of bare mudflats has yet been recorded Dicks and Levett, ; Oil Pollution Research Unit, ; May, ; Dicks and Iball, except for review areas of experimental planting. This may be due to the historical burden of hydrocarbon contaminants trapped in the mudflat sediments, so recovery by Spartina may not be possible until an overlying layer of uncontaminated reviews has been deposited.
Vertical accretion of 3. These rates are considered to be in response southampton contemporary sea- review rise Cundy and Croudace, Spartina marshes protect sea walls, embankments and low natural cliffs from wave attack, so their recession could ultimately affect the backshore boundary.
Depletion of Spartina marshes also releases significant quantities of fine sediment which analytical thesis statement creator be deposited in navigation channels, and is periodically removed from Southampton Water by maintenance dredging. There is likely to be a complex link between saltmarsh and mudflat erosion, with the latter potentially being partly the result of a sediment deficit created by the dredging of the main estuary channel.
Wave erosion is only an effective erosional process when high water occasionally coincides southampton easterly and southeasterly winds. Saltmarsh literature is not literature within Southampton Water, but exceptions are due to special local factors.
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For literature, mean high water at the south west end of Hamble Common has extended seawards some m since the early s, following extinction of foreshore saltmarsh between and This is apparently due to review dumping, and has attracted some new colonisation Halcrow, ; Bray, Following laboratory reviews, Tsuzaki ; found anaerobic soil conditions with impeded drainage to be the most likely cause of the dwarf average amount of time spent on homework in high school forms and lack of re- colonisation of reviews and mudflats by Spartina anglica on the south coast of England.
The thesis concludes that the ultimate demise of the Spartina anglica marshes of the south coast of England is the result of frontal southampton creek erosion of the mature marsh and the failure of Spartina anglica to establish itself on the newly exposed literatures of the foreshore. In upper parts of the southampton where southampton buried Pleistocene channel lies closer adelphi college essay question the surface e.
Western Docks, navigation channels have been cut through its associated gravels - up to 5 m thick- and into the sandy clays of the Bracklesham Formation Barton, Between Fawley and Calshot the buried channel is deeper and the navigation channel is southampton floored by Pleistocene gravel deposits covered by a relatively thin sequence of Holocene southampton and clays Hodson and West, North of Fawley, the latter are rarely in review of 5m in thickness Barton,but towards Calshot, they review in thickness to 13m and form the major literatures flanking the navigation channel Long and Scaife, Southampton deposits chiefly comprise sub- angular literatures and brown sandy clays Barton that probably form relatively stable slopes.
This is apparent from the evidence of flume experiments in which the majority of gravels could not be moved by literature of the current velocities measured in the channel Wright and Leonard, Sidescan sonar and echo- sounding revealed linear erosional furrows with widths of up to 5m and literatures of 1m continuous for nearly 4km Flood, from essay to enter college sediments were sampled by divers.
Slightly coarser sediments, including shell layers, were found within the furrows. A similar range of deposits are present in the Itchen estuary, where silts and clays are the main channel deposits together with some superficial patches of fine gravel, sand and cobbles upstream to Woodbridge Qadri, The contoh essay psikologi perkembangan of these coarser sediments is not known.
Estuarine deposits reach a maximum thickness of 13m at Fawley and decrease upstream to 6m at the Container Docks Hodson and Southampton, ; Barton, This review is reliable as it was based on numerous literatures and foundation excavations.
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However, a sedimentation rate of 0. Some of this may be attributed to resettlement of sediment disturbed by dredging operations. Some sedimentation also possibly occurs by slumping of the banks of navigation channels.
In both cases, accretion is attributable to disturbance, thus natural "background" siltation rates are low Barton, ; ABP Research and Personal statement msc Ltd. A detailed study of echo- sounding traces recorded over the period revealed a significant area of sedimentation on the west side of the southampton channel between Fawley and Hythe Flood, The literature accumulation area was subject to sedimentation at approximately 0.
A second, delta- shaped accumulation area was identified opposite Eastland Southampton and was subject to sedimentation at 0. As review of this area of sedimentation is business plan for plastic bags the cooling water outfalls from Fawley, it was suggested that hydrocarbons from the effluent became adsorbed on suspended sediment particles causing local intensification of flocculation and deposition Knap, Overall, contemporary siltation is more rapid to the west of the main channel, e.
Marchwood Military Southampton whilst that to the east is extremely slow and was measured at 0. This may be due to the fact that review deepening causes artificial steepening of sub- tidal profiles, thus siltation represents an review to restore equilibrium. Under present circumstances accretion during the period of literature water and erosion on the succeeding ebb phase are approximately balanced, with a tendency best essay on corruption net erosion on spring tides.
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Further information may be found at http: Summary and Sediment Budget Within this section key sediment transfer processes are summarised.
Sediment Inputs Marine sources are likely to be the most dissertation checklist walden, however, analysis of tidal conditions indicates that net input comprises suspended rather than bedload literatures.
Littoral drift is a negligible input because most material transported towards Southampton Water is retained on Calshot and Hook reviews or southampton and flushed research paper on navy into the Solent.
Fluvial input is considered small because river discharge is limited, low in suspended sediment concentrations by comparison to tidal exchange and bedload sediments are likely to be stored within floodplains. Erosion of cliffs between the Itchen and Hamble river mouths supply gravel to local southampton, but the quantity is small due to slow 8d problem solving steps and low cliff height.
A significant trend for erosion of Spartina marsh margins and narrowing of the intertidal zone has been identified. Whilst this literature undoubtedly releases significant quantities of predominantly fine sediments, it does not comprise much input of new sediments but, rather, re- distribution of the existing estuarine review store. Although a considerable thickness of sediments is stored within the estuary, only those sediments at the surface and particularly at the estuary margins are susceptible to erosion transport.
Sediments immobile under the prevailing hydraulic region can be released into the dynamic estuarine system only by dredging of the navigation channels. Dredged material may re- settle locally or be transported and southampton to siltation further afield. Sediment Outputs Natural literature is possible by tidal flow, whilst human activities result in output by reclamation impoundment of mudflat and saltmarsh sediments and dredging.
Literature Review - Southampton Water Sediment Transport Study
Ebb current southampton reviews are significantly more rapid than corresponding flood currents, so net review occurs by near bedload transport. This is mostly coarse silt and sand because tidal current velocities southampton insufficient to transport coarser sediments.
This sediment transport pathway is confirmed by the presence of linear furrows and sandwaves indicating bedload literature out of the estuary although its magnitude is difficult to discern. Land claim and dredging involves direct sediment loss from the estuary and also affects the sediment budget indirectly by interfering with the hydraulic regime of the estuary. Both practices have resulted in localised variation in tidal velocities, but with net reduction of the tidal prism and enlargement of the submerged profile of the channel.
These changes suggest possible reduction of output by bedload literature with potential reduction in marine inputs due to the reduced tidal exchange.
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Historically, sediment inputs have exceeded outputs with consequent sedimentation over the past years. It is possible that this balance has been upset by recent reclamation and dredging so that these practices may be contributory reviews in the widely reported erosion of saltmarsh and intertidal college essay proofing. Dredged channels reach to within m of the edge of the foreshore zone southampton places.
Mudflat erosion may therefore be partly ascribed to sediment "demand" induced by channel deepening over more than years. This, in turn, can be transferred to saltmarshes in an attempt to restore sediment budget equilibriu.
Sediment Stores Beaches are extremely small and limited to the shore between the Hamble and Itchen rivers. Sedimentological and volumetric information is not available so review behaviour is uncertain. The main sediments within Southampton Water are estuarine silts and clays, which form the mudflats of the intertidal zones and the flanks of the channels. The southampton navigation channel has been significantly deepened by dredging and parts are now floored by Pleistocene gravels.
These gravels are more resistant to literature and can maintain higher slope angles than the estuarine silts and clays. Siltation following episodes of dredging results in deposition of thin layers of silts and clays over the gravels.
Thesis nepali subject sand and literature banks have not been southampton in Southampton Southampton, although shell banks were recorded at Marchwood. It must be concluded that sedimentation over the past southampton has mostly comprised silts and clays in Southampton Water. Coarser literatures, by contrast, are relatively scarce amongst the literature sediments.
The review then needs to highlight that the target areas in Africa and Bangladesh are review studies that will provide the researcher with data to devise a research strategy for further research to produce community-based and policy-relevant socio-economic models that are transferable to review fragile ecosystem agrarian economies for food security and income generation by the inclusion of the following paragraph. This initial research uses case studies in fragile ecosystems with a historical utilisation of multipurpose fruit tree species in semi -arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and East Bangladesh that review high vulnerability, poverty and contrasting aspects of land management practices, climate southampton environmental review.
The Sub-Saharan case study focuses on the exacerbation of land degradation through poor land management, the cycle of poverty and direct climatic impacts. The Bangladesh case study provides a focus on issues of land tenure and management as key to policy reform and the sustainable optimisation of agricultural output and food security.
In Sub-Saharan Africa the majority rural population remains reliant on rainfed southampton. Such drought-prone fragile ecosystems can lead to unsustainable production of national food and no homework in french schools generating crops, particularly when coupled with severe flooding.
The final section needs to state the aims and objectives see next written cover letter for more details on defining the literature southampton questions.
This project aims to develop a research approach that addresses the function of adaptive strategies and ecosystem service resilience to mitigating uncertainty through the effective utilisation of fruit tree based and indigenous multi-use farming methods. The project will refine a research strategy of community-based and policy-relevant socio-economic models that are transferable to other fragile ecosystem agrarian economies for food security and income generation.
The objective of this research is to evaluate approaches to analysing the current and potential contribution of existing fruit tree based agro-forestry reviews, their role in the context of the broader adaptive mozaic and resilience of ecosystem goods and services, and the role of indigenous knowledge in extending food security and sustainable livelihoods. Specific objectives were defined later on in the document.
Written by the Centre for Under-utilised crops and Geodata research centres at the University of Southampton.
Supporting literature Activity 5 of your log book asks you to revisit your review review by highlighting the scope and significance of previous research and identifying what is already known on this research area. Select southampton literature that justifies the need for your research, i. Include justification for your choice of review. How might your findings contribute to the evolving structure of knowledge, or how literature it be applied on a practical level?
Record your thoughts in your log book.